Ethereum & The Ethereum Foundation

The Ethereum Foundation’s mission is to promote and support research, development and education to bring decentralized protocols and tools to the world that empower developers to produce next generation decentralized applications (dapps), and together build a more globally accessible, more free and more trustworthy Internet.

– https://ethereum.org/foundation

Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference.

https://ethereum.org

Ethereum & The Ethereum Foundation

Defending Bitcoin

Today, as a result of the Internet and online social networks, the velocity of information between people has become strikingly fast. One immediate impact of this is that gauging the quality of information is limited, because — well, there may only be 2 people in the world who know exactly what is truth. In fact, 1 person can create a trend which affects a billion people in a couple of minutes. By consuming information in this manner, it seems that sharing information is starting to become a cult trend, rather than actual communication meant to convey a point or serve a purpose. But can such trends die as fast as they started?

One trending form of information is concealment. Bitcoin seems to be a recent example of a disparity between what is real and what is a trend. Is the value of Bitcoin based on something real or a trend? Prior to Bitcoin, there was Tor, BitTorrent, etc. … all the way back to dial-up BBSs. To this day, none of these have prevented law enforcement from going after criminals, yet, they continue to be havens for citizens to attempt to conceal their actions.

Bitcoin is a computationally private and distributed cryptocurrency that enables concealment of information in a way which wasn’t previously possible. Bitcoin is not anonymous, it is not a generally accepted currency, and I think Bitcoin’s scalability is ultimately limited by government impositions (or the lack thereof) on network packets.

The strongest counter to Bitcoin’s scalability is that while Bitcoin itself maybe robust, it requires secure network connectivity, which as everyone has finally realized, is not robust. A majority of the Internet connections throughout the world are through cellular or wireless connections which, in almost all cases, are heavily regulated by governments and legally restricted by the wireless carriers. You can’t just connect your computer to your cell phone and download free movies and music — you probably won’t get past a GB until you’re throttled, and in about 3-6 months you could end up in court.

A cell phone company has it’s subscriber’s identities, can see what connections are used for, and will follow the law — a copyright holder can file subpoenas and federal and state regulations make them subject to the will of several governmental bodies.

Simply put, state control over major ISPs could immediately cripple Bitcoin. Regardless of it being “distributed” the fact that Bitcoin depends on a majority-voting and settlement system means that it will slow to a halt of too much latency is added to the network. Major ISPs only need to inject routes which triple latency and, at scale, Bitcoin transactions would trail the market in a way which would lead to arbitrage capable of pricking the perfect hype bubble which Bitcoin has created.

Let’s remember folks — the US Government funded, invented, and subsidized most of the infrastructure and technologies which Bitcoin depend on.

Maybe the rest of the world isn’t as eager to file lawsuits against citizens for copyrights. But when there is a system which threatens the stability of commerce and currency — most governments, unlike copyright holders, can act first and ask for forgiveness later.

Defending Bitcoin

Ruby EventMachine :gt Python Tornado, Twisted

I was working on a project looking to see if Ruby was good enough for responding quickly to HTTP requests. Good thing it, along with Python, and every other language, plays well with C/C++. Anyways, EventMachine apparently blows away Tornado and Twisted. I only tested Tornado because it’s faster, right? What I really wanted to test was if either of these would fall apart under high concurrency or load. For the “Hello World!”, they both survived although as you can see for Tornado, response times became an issue earlier. I’ve also provided ‘ab’ for reference – it’s a little more specific with regard to response times. Clearly both of these are hitting a CPU ceiling – with Tornado hitting it faster. Ftr, I tested on a dual-core 2.33ghz xeon w/RHEL5, python2.6, and ruby1.8.5.

Along my adventure in this hnews thread, I came along this most awesome post: Twisted vs. Tornado: You’re Both Idiots

Anyways, what I’m happy about is there’s a Ruby option for a fast little server which pumps out a bajillion requests per second if you’ve got a farm of servers and it won’t fall on it’s face. Also, I don’t have to use Python and EventMachine is a BREEZE to use. What does suck is the EM HTTP server isn’t RFC compliant but that’s probably just a matter of time and I won’t be using HTTP anyways. ymmv

httperf: Tornado

[root@mail ~]# httperf --port=3002 --num-conns=1000 --num-calls=500 --rate 100 -v
httperf --verbose --client=0/1 --server=localhost --port=3002 --uri=/ --rate=100 --send-buffer=4096 --recv-buffer=16384 --num-conns=1000 --num-calls=500
httperf: maximum number of open descriptors = 1024
reply-rate = 5045.8
reply-rate = 4868.5
reply-rate = 4905.4
reply-rate = 4846.9
reply-rate = 4938.4
reply-rate = 4747.3
reply-rate = 4800.2
reply-rate = 4795.6
reply-rate = 4595.3
reply-rate = 4591.1
reply-rate = 4784.6
reply-rate = 4775.9
reply-rate = 4563.3
reply-rate = 4872.3
reply-rate = 4948.8
reply-rate = 4853.0
reply-rate = 4551.3
reply-rate = 4587.3
reply-rate = 4885.7
reply-rate = 4900.2
Maximum connect burst length: 1
Total: connections 1000 requests 500000 replies 500000 test-duration 104.059 s
Connection rate: 9.6 conn/s (104.1 ms/conn, <=1000 concurrent connections)
Connection time [ms]: min 34704.2 avg 93867.4 max 97177.5 median 95862.5 stddev 6293.6
Connection time [ms]: connect 0.0
Connection length [replies/conn]: 500.000
Request rate: 4805.0 req/s (0.2 ms/req)
Request size [B]: 62.0
Reply rate [replies/s]: min 4551.3 avg 4792.8 max 5045.8 stddev 144.4 (20 samples)
Reply time [ms]: response 187.7 transfer 0.0
Reply size [B]: header 156.0 content 12.0 footer 0.0 (total 168.0)
Reply status: 1xx=0 2xx=500000 3xx=0 4xx=0 5xx=0
CPU time [s]: user 2.97 system 99.60 (user 2.9% system 95.7% total 98.6%)
Net I/O: 1079.2 KB/s (8.8*10^6 bps)
Errors: total 0 client-timo 0 socket-timo 0 connrefused 0 connreset 0
Errors: fd-unavail 0 addrunavail 0 ftab-full 0 other 0

httperf: Ruby EventMachine

[root@mail ~]# httperf --port=3001 --num-conns=1000 --num-calls=500 --rate 100 -v
httperf --verbose --client=0/1 --server=localhost --port=3001 --uri=/ --rate=100 --send-buffer=4096 --recv-buffer=16384 --num-conns=1000 --num-calls=500
httperf: maximum number of open descriptors = 1024
reply-rate = 11631.7
reply-rate = 9769.5
reply-rate = 9352.3
reply-rate = 10086.1
reply-rate = 8899.4
reply-rate = 9759.3
reply-rate = 9985.1
reply-rate = 10152.8
reply-rate = 10383.9
Maximum connect burst length: 1
Total: connections 1000 requests 500000 replies 500000 test-duration 49.590 s
Connection rate: 20.2 conn/s (49.6 ms/conn, <=984 concurrent connections)
Connection time [ms]: min 229.8 avg 39130.7 max 42870.4 median 41409.5 stddev 6775.5
Connection time [ms]: connect 0.0
Connection length [replies/conn]: 500.000
Request rate: 10082.7 req/s (0.1 ms/req)
Request size [B]: 62.0
Reply rate [replies/s]: min 8899.4 avg 10002.2 max 11631.7 stddev 756.9 (9 samples)
Reply time [ms]: response 78.3 transfer 0.0
Reply size [B]: header 65.0 content 12.0 footer 0.0 (total 77.0)
Reply status: 1xx=0 2xx=500000 3xx=0 4xx=0 5xx=0
CPU time [s]: user 2.20 system 46.84 (user 4.4% system 94.4% total 98.9%)
Net I/O: 1368.7 KB/s (11.2*10^6 bps)
Errors: total 0 client-timo 0 socket-timo 0 connrefused 0 connreset 0
Errors: fd-unavail 0 addrunavail 0 ftab-full 0 other 0

ab: Tornado

[root@mail ~]# ab -c1000 -n100000 http://127.0.0.1:3002/
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.0.40-dev <$Revision: 1.146 $> apache-2.0
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Copyright 2006 The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking 127.0.0.1 (be patient)
Completed 10000 requests
Completed 20000 requests
Completed 30000 requests
Completed 40000 requests
Completed 50000 requests
Completed 60000 requests
Completed 70000 requests
Completed 80000 requests
Completed 90000 requests
Finished 100000 requests

Server Software:        TornadoServer/0.1
Server Hostname:        127.0.0.1
Server Port:            3002

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        12 bytes

Concurrency Level:      1000
Time taken for tests:   27.996766 seconds
Complete requests:      100000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      16800336 bytes
HTML transferred:       1200024 bytes
Requests per second:    3571.84 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       279.968 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.280 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          586.00 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0  197 1102.8      0   20998
Processing:     1   50  37.3     45    5234
Waiting:        0   49  37.4     44    5234
Total:         18  247 1109.2     45   21253

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     45
  66%     48
  75%     52
  80%     57
  90%     77
  95%   1237
  98%   3074
  99%   3112
 100%  21253 (longest request)

ab: EventMachine

[root@mail ~]# ab -c1000 -n100000 http://127.0.0.1:3001/
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.0.40-dev <$Revision: 1.146 $> apache-2.0
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Copyright 2006 The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking 127.0.0.1 (be patient)
Completed 10000 requests
Completed 20000 requests
Completed 30000 requests
Completed 40000 requests
Completed 50000 requests
Completed 60000 requests
Completed 70000 requests
Completed 80000 requests
Completed 90000 requests
Finished 100000 requests

Server Software:
Server Hostname:        127.0.0.1
Server Port:            3001

Document Path:          /
Document Length:        12 bytes

Concurrency Level:      1000
Time taken for tests:   15.238117 seconds
Complete requests:      100000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:           0
Total transferred:      7700077 bytes
HTML transferred:       1200012 bytes
Requests per second:    6562.49 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:       152.381 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:       0.152 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          493.43 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median   max
Connect:        0   76 603.3      0    9000
Processing:     0   32 264.1     15   10627
Waiting:        0   31 264.1     14   10625
Total:          9  108 752.8     15   14642

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%     15
  66%     15
  75%     15
  80%     22
  90%     33
  95%     35
  98%   2999
  99%   3015
 100%  14642 (longest request)
Ruby EventMachine :gt Python Tornado, Twisted